With the increasing need to encrypt more network traffic to improve security, PKI administrators are under intense pressure. In most organizations, very small teams of PKI experts manage thousands of TLS keys and certificates and small mistakes can have disastrous results. Without the right technology and processes in place, it’s easy for the sheer volume of changes impacting these critical security assets, which serve as machine identities, to overwhelm even the most knowledgeable administrators.
“You can’t run in the cloud, use Kubernetes, deploy IoT fleets and more without using PKI; however, for most IT professionals machine identities are a dark art with few masters,” said Kevin Bocek, vice president of security strategy and threat intelligence for machine identity protection leader Venafi. “CISOs can’t leave IAM programs to chance, so PKI must be operated safely. Ultimately, PKI should be the root of robust machine identity protection programs; businesses use it to identify and authorize the flow of data to trusted machines.”
According to Bocek, there are four common errors organizations make that increase security risks and negatively impact the reliability and availability of business-critical network resources. These mistakes include:
Forgetting internal and intermediate private certificate authorities
If an organization’s root-signing of intermediate certificate authority (CA) goes offline for any reason, administrators must know where it’s located. There have been instances where organizations have set up a root CA on a virtual machine and then allow that machine to go dormant. When IT ops teams come along to tidy up dormant virtual machines, they inadvertently disable the entire PKI by deleting the virtual machine which housed the forgotten root or intermediate CA. Without the right technology, this error could take months to fix.
Failing to revoke certificates and remove keys
Application owners and system administrators that don’t work with certificates frequently try to install certificates in the wrong place, make errors in requests, or forget to remove unneeded or unused certificates. These unnecessary certificates may not be revoked, and the corresponding keys never removed. In some organizations thousands of unnecessary machine identities are littered across hundreds of servers. This provides bad actors plenty of opportunities to find and abuse these legitimate certificates.
Consistently extending certificate expiration periods
Managing certificates manually can be both time and resource intensive, especially if organizations use spreadsheets, internal scripts or CA dashboards with limited functionality. It can be tempting to reduce this problem by extending certificate expiration periods. While this technique may save organizations some time in the short term, it also significantly increases organizational security risk. Longer certificate lifespans give attackers more time to target the private keys.
Not tracking wild-card certificates
Wild-card certificates are so easy to use they are often employed indiscriminately; many organizations don’t even track them. If PKI administrators don’t know which machines are using wild-card certificates, it’s nearly impossible to renew every instance before they expire. When these certificates eventually expire, every machine on which they were installed will stop communicating at the same time. This eventuality can disrupt business and requires extensive resources to track each installation down and reinstall new certificates.
“It’s all too easy to make common PKI mistakes, which can have serious implications for businesses,” concluded Bocek. “By highlighting some of the things that can go terribly wrong, more PKI administrators can avoid the nightmares described above. The best way to eliminate all major errors that plague PKI is to build a machine identity protection program that provides the visibility, intelligence and automation necessary to reduce security risks and increase reliability and availability.”
For more information on protecting PKI, please visit: https://www.venafi.com/resource/PKI_eBook.
Venafi is the cybersecurity market leader and inventor of machine identity protection, securing machine-to-machine connections and communications. Venafi protects machine identity types by orchestrating cryptographic keys and digital certificates for SSL/TLS, IoT, code signing, mobile and SSH. Venafi provides global visibility of machine identities and the risks associated with them for the extended enterprise—on premises, mobile, virtual, cloud and IoT—at machine speed and scale. Venafi puts this intelligence into action with automated remediation that reduces the security and availability risks connected with weak or compromised machine identities while safeguarding the flow of information to trusted machines and preventing communication with machines that are not trusted.
With over 30 patents, Venafi delivers innovative solutions for the world’s most demanding, security-conscious Global 5000 organizations and government agencies, including the top five U.S. health insurers; the top five U.S. airlines; the top four credit card issuers; three out of the top four accounting and consulting firms; four of the top five U.S., U.K., Australian and South African banks; and four of the top five U.S. retailers. Venafi is backed by top-tier investors, including TCV, Foundation Capital, Intel Capital, QuestMark Partners, Mercato Partners and NextEquity.
For more information, visit: www.venafi.com.